Plato's Republic - Plato - Страница 1 из 450


THE REPUBLIC
by Plato
(360 B.C.)
translated by Benjamin Jowett
THE INTRODUCTION
THE Republic of Plato is the longest of his works with the exception of
the Laws, and is certainly the greatest of them. There are nearer
approaches to modern metaphysics in the Philebus and in the Sophist;
the Politicus or Statesman is more ideal; the form and institutions of
the State are more clearly drawn out in the Laws; as works of art, the
Symposium and the Protagoras are of higher excellence. But no other
Dialogue of Plato has the same largeness of view and the same
perfection of style; no other shows an equal knowledge of the world, or
contains more of those thoughts which are new as well as old, and not
of one age only but of all. Nowhere in Plato is there a deeper irony
or a greater wealth of humor or imagery, or more dramatic power. Nor
in any other of his writings is the attempt made to interweave life and
speculation, or to connect politics with philosophy. The Republic is
the centre around which the other Dialogues may be grouped; here
philosophy reaches the highest point to which ancient thinkers ever
attained. Plato among the Greeks, like Bacon among the moderns, was
the first who conceived a method of knowledge, although neither of them
always distinguished the bare outline or form from the substance of
truth; and both of them had to be content with an abstraction of
science which was not yet realized. He was the greatest metaphysical
genius whom the world has seen; and in him, more than in any other


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